Manual Bones
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Fig 2.1. Tray of bones sorted for mending of fresh breaks.

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Fig 2.1. Tray of bones sorted for mending of fresh breaks.

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Fig. 3.1. Mammal and bird bone with close-ups (50X magnification) of each.

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Fig. 3.1. Mammal and bird bone.

Figure3.01ColorBird.

Fig. 3.1. Close-up (50X magnification) of bird bone.

Figure3.01ColorMammal.

Fig. 3.1. Close-up (50X magnification) of mammal bone.

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Fig. 3.2. Fish bone (Stizostedion vitreum) showing translucent character.

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Fig. 3.2. Fish bone (Stizostedion vitreum) showing translucent character.

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Fig. 3.3. Long bones of a mammal and bird.

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Fig. 3.3. Long bones of a mammal and bird.

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Fig. 3.4. Long bones of a reptile and an amphibian.

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Fig. 3.4. Long bones of a reptile and an amphibian.

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Fig. 3.5. Examples of mammal, fish, bird, reptile, and amphibian bones.

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Fig. 3.5. Examples of mammal, fish, bird, reptile, and amphibian bones.

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Fig. 3.6. A broken bird bone and a sawn mammal bone.

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Fig. 3.6. A broken bird bone and a sawn mammal bone.

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Fig. 3.7. The interior of the articular ends of a mammal femur and a bird humerus.

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Fig. 3.7. The interior of the articular ends of a mammal femur and a bird humerus.

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Fig. 3.8. Examples of juvenile mammal bone showing the areas where growth occurs.

Figure3.08aDrawing.

Fig. 3.8. Examples of juvenile mammal bone showing the areas where growth occurs.

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Fig. 3.8. Examples of juvenile mammal bone showing the areas where growth occurs.

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Fig. 3.8. Examples of juvenile mammal bone showing the areas where growth occurs.

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Fig. 3.9. Lizard, turtle, and snake bones

Figure3.09Drawing.

Fig. 3.9. Lizard, turtle, and snake bones

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Fig. 3.10. Molars of a rodent.

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Fig. 3.10a. Molars of a rodent.

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Fig. 3.10. Molars of a carnivore.

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Fig. 3.10. Molars of a carnivore.

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Fig. 3.10. Molars of a rodent, carnivore, artiodactyl, and perissodactyl.

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Fig. 3.10. Molars of a perissodactyl.

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Fig. 3.10. Molars of a perissodactyl.

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Fig. 3.10. Molars of an artiodactyl.

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Fig. 3.10. Molars of an artiodactyl.

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Fig. 3.11. The mandible of a bear showing the mixture of carnivore and omnivore traits.

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Fig. 3.11. The mandible of a bear showing the mixture of carnivore and omnivore traits.

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Fig. 3.12. Bones of a bear compared to bones of a pig.

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Fig. 3.12. Bones of a bear compared to bones of a pig.

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Fig. 3.13. Examples of rodent mandibles.

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Fig. 3.13. Examples of rodent mandibles.

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Fig. 3.14. Mandibles of a jackrabbit and a desert cottontail rabbit.

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Fig. 3.14. Mandibles of a jackrabbit and a desert cottontail rabbit.

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Fig. 3.15. A lagomorph skull showing the characteristic foramina.

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Fig. 3.15. A lagomorph skull showing the characteristic foramina.

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Fig. 3.16. Tooth plate of a red drum.

Figure3.16aDrawing.

Fig. 3.16. Tooth plate of a red drum.

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Fig. 3.16. Fragment of the pharyngeal teeth.

Figure3.16bDrawing.

Fig. 3.16. Fragment of the pharyngeal teeth.

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Fig. 3.17. Vertebra from a salmon.

Figure3.17aDrawing.

Fig. 3.17. Vertebra from a salmon.

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Fig. 3.17. Vertebra from a carp.

Figure3.17bDrawing.

Fig. 3.17. Vertebra from a carp.

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Fig. 3.17. Vertebra from a grouper.

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Fig. 3.17. Vertebra from a grouper.

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Fig. 3.18. Otoliths of a freshwater drum.

Figure3.18Drawing.

Fig. 3.18. Otoliths of a freshwater drum.

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Fig. 3.19. Examples of bird crania.

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Fig. 3.19. Examples of bird crania.

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Fig. 3.20. Long bones a frog.

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Fig. 3.20. Long bones a frog.

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Fig. 3.20. Partial pelvis of a toad.

Figure3.20bDrawing.

Fig. 3.20. Partial pelvis of a toad.

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Fig. 3.20. Long bones a frog and the partial pelvis of a toad.

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Fig. 3.21. Reptile tooth types.

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Fig. 3.21. Reptile tooth types.

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Fig. 3.21. Reptile tooth types.

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Fig. 3.21. Reptile tooth types.

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Fig. 3.21. Reptile tooth types.

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Fig. 3.21. Reptile tooth types.

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Fig. 3.21. Reptile tooth types.

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Fig. 4.1. The skeleton of a mammal.

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Fig. 4.1. The skeleton of a mammal.

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Fig. 4.2. The skeleton of a fish.

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Fig. 4.2. The skeleton of a fish.

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Fig. 4.3. The skeleton of a bird.

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Fig. 4.3. The skeleton of a bird.

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Fig. 4.4. The skeleton of an amphibian.

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Fig. 4.4. The skeleton of an amphibian.

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Fig. 4.5. The skeleton of a reptile.

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Fig. 4.5. The skeleton of a reptile.

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Fig. 4.6. Examples of mammal cranial bone from archaeological assemblages.

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Fig. 4.6. Examples of mammal cranial bone from archaeological assemblages.

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Fig. 4.6. Examples of mammal cranial bone from archaeological assemblages.

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Fig. 4.6. Examples of mammal cranial bone from archaeological assemblages.

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Fig. 4.6. Examples of mammal cranial bone from archaeological assemblages.

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Fig. 4.7. Crania of a reptile, an amphibian, and mammal.

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Fig. 4.7. Crania of a bird.

Figure4.07Drawing.

Fig. 4.7. Crania of a reptile, an amphibian, a mammal, and a bird.

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Fig. 4.8. Examples of white-tailed deer antler.

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Fig. 4.8. Examples of white-tailed deer antler.

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Fig. 4.8. Examples of white-tailed deer antler.

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Fig. 4.8. Examples of white-tailed deer antler.

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Fig. 4.9 Example of bison horn.

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Fig. 4.9 Example of bison horn.

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Fig. 4.10 Examples of mammal, fish, bird, amphibian, and reptile vertebrae.

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Fig. 4.10 Examples of mammal, fish, bird, amphibian, and reptile vertebrae.

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Fig. 4.11 The 172 vertebrae of a single snake.

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Fig. 4.11 The 172 vertebrae of a single snake.

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Fig. 4.12 Mammal vertebrae showing the range of variation in form within a single skeleton.

Figure4.12aDrawing.

Fig. 4.12 Mammal vertebrae showing the range of variation in form within a single skeleton.

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Fig. 4.12 Mammal vertebrae showing the range of variation in form within a single skeleton.

Figure4.12bDrawing.

Fig. 4.12 Mammal vertebrae showing the range of variation in form within a single skeleton.

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Fig. 4.12 Mammal vertebrae showing the range of variation in form within a single skeleton.

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Fig. 4.13 Fish vertebrae showing difference.

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Fig. 4.13 Fish vertebrae showing difference.

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Fig. 4.14 Bird vertebrae showing difference.

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Fig. 4.14 Bird vertebrae showing difference.

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Fig. 4.15 Vertebrae of a turtle compared to similarly sized snake.

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Fig. 4.15 Vertebrae of a turtle compared to similarly sized snake.

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Figure 4.16 Fragments of mammal vertebrae from an archaeological site in Maryland.

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Figure 4.16 Fragments of mammal vertebrae from an archaeological site in Maryland.

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Figure 4.17 Fragments of fish vertebrae from an archaeological site in Maryland.

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Figure 4.17 Fragments of fish vertebrae from an archaeological site in Maryland.

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Figure 4.18 Fragments of bird vertebrae from an archaeological site in Maryland.

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Figure 4.18 Fragments of bird vertebrae from an archaeological site in Maryland.

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Figure 4.19 Mammal, fish, and bird rib from an archaeological site in Maryland.

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Figure 4.19 Mammal, fish, and bird rib from an archaeological site in Maryland.

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Fig. 4.20 A bird sternum.

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Fig. 4.20 A bird sternum.

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Figure 4.21 A fragment of bird sternum from an archaeological site in Maryland.

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Figure 4.21 A fragment of bird sternum from an archaeological site in Maryland.

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Fig. 4.22 The pelves of a mammal, bird, reptile, and amphibian.

Figure4.22Drawing.

Fig. 4.22 The pelves of a mammal, bird, reptile, and amphibian.

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Fig. 4.23 The innominates of three mammals.

Figure4.23Drawing.

Fig. 4.23 The innominates of three mammals.

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Fig. 4.24 Fragments of mammal pelvic bone from an archaeological site in Maryland.

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Fig. 4.24 Fragments of mammal pelvic bone from an archaeological site in Maryland.

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Figure 4.25 Fragments of bird pelvis from an archaeological site in Maryland.

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Figure 4.25 Fragments of bird pelvis from an archaeological site in Maryland.

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Fig. 4.26 The shoulder girdles of a mammal, bird, reptile, and amphibian.

Figure4.26Drawing.

Fig. 4.26 The shoulder girdles of a mammal, bird, reptile, and amphibian.

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Figure 4.27 Fragments of mammal scapulae from an archaeological site in Maryland.

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Figure 4.27 Fragments of mammal scapulae from an archaeological site in Maryland.

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Figure 4.28 Fragments of bird coracoid and scapula.

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Figure 4.28 Fragments of bird coracoid and scapula.

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Fig. 4.29 The upper limbs of a mammal, bird, reptile, and amphibian.

Figure4.29Drawing.

Fig. 4.29 The upper limbs of a mammal, bird, reptile, and amphibian.

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Fig. 4.30 Proximal coyote humerus compared to that of a white-tailed deer.

Figure4.30Drawing.

Fig. 4.30 Proximal coyote humerus compared to that of a white-tailed deer.

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Fig. 4.31 Cross-sections of a mammal humerus and a mammal femur.

Figure4.31Drawing.

Fig. 4.31 Cross-sections of a mammal humerus and a mammal femur.

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Figure 4.32 Fragment of mammal ulna from an archaeological site in Maryland.

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Figure 4.32 Fragment of mammal ulna from an archaeological site in Maryland.

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Fig. 4.33 The fused ulna and radius of a juvenile white-tailed deer. OR CAPRA HIRCA???

Figure4.33Drawing.

Fig. 4.33 The fused ulna and radius of a juvenile white-tailed deer. OR CAPRA HIRCA???

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Figure 4.34 Fragment of a mammal radius from an archaeological site in Maryland.

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Figure 4.34 Fragment of a mammal radius from an archaeological site in Maryland.

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Figure 4.35 Fragments of bird upper limbs from an archaeological site in Maryland.

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Figure 4.35 Fragments of bird upper limbs from an archaeological site in Maryland.

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Fig. 4.36 The lower limbs of a mammal, bird, reptile, and amphibian.

Figure4.36Drawing.

Fig. 4.36 The lower limbs of a mammal, bird, reptile, and amphibian.

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Fig 4.37 Proximal tibias of a coyote and a white-tailed deer.

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Fig 4.37 Proximal tibias of a coyote and a white-tailed deer.

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Fig. 4.38 Fragments of bird distal tibiotarsus and tarsometatarsus from an archaeological site in Maryland.

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Fig. 4.38 Fragments of bird distal tibiotarsus and tarsometatarsus from an archaeological site in Maryland.

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Fig. 4.39 Carpal bones of a white-tailed deer.

Figure4.39aDrawing.

Fig. 4.39 Carpal bones of a white-tailed deer.

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Fig. 4.39 Tarsal bones and some phalanges of a white-tailed deer.

Figure4.39bDrawing.

Fig. 4.39 Tarsal bones and some phalanges of a white-tailed deer.

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Fig. 4.40 Calcaneus and astragalus of a large mammal.

Figure4.40aDrawing.

Fig. 4.40 Calcaneus and astragalus of a large mammal.

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Fig. 4.40 Calcaneus and astragalus of a small mammal.

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Fig. 4.40 Calcaneus and astragalus of a small mammal.

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Figure 4.41 Examples of mammal astraguli from an archaeological site in Maryland.

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Figure 4.41 Examples of mammal astraguli from an archaeological site in Maryland.

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Fig. 4.42 A complete metatarsal and two fragmentary metacarpals of a white-tailed deer.

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Fig. 4.42 A complete metatarsal and two fragmentary metacarpals of a white-tailed deer.

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Figure 4.43 Examples of unfused epiphyses from an archaeological site in Maryland.

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Figure 4.43 Examples of unfused epiphyses from an archaeological site in Maryland.

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Fig. 4.44 The baculum of a raccoon (Procyon lotor).

Figure4.44Drawing.

Fig. 4.44 The baculum of a raccoon (Procyon lotor).

Figure5.1Drawing.

Fig. 5.1. Types of bone fractures.

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Fig. 5.2. Two examples of cut marked mammal bone, viewed with 50X magnification.

Figure5.3aDrawing.

Figure 5.3 Examples of recorded butchery patterns from an archaeological site in New York.

Figure5.3bDrawing.

Figure 5.3 Examples of recorded butchery patterns from an archaeological site in New York.

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Fig. 5.4. Two examples of worked mammal bone, viewed with 50X magnification.

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Fig. 5.5. An example of burned mammal bone identified in an archaeological assemblage.

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Fig. 5.5. An example of burned mammal bone identified in an archaeological assemblage.

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Fig. 5.6. Four examples of gnawed mammal bone. All were photographed at 50X magnification.

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Fig. 5.7. Three examples of digestive damage, viewed with 50X magnification.

Figure5.8Drawing.

Fig. 5.8. Examples of scan sites used to analyze density-mediated attrition. (Adapted from Novecosky and Popkin 2005, Pavao and Stahl 1999, and Stahl 1999).

Figure6.1Drawing.

Fig. 6.1 Example of how recording the completeness of a specimen can aid analysis.

Figure7.1Drawing.

Fig. 7.1 An example of a very detailed skeletal part profile showing the elements of domestic cow.

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Fig. 7.2 Bar chart showing percentage of the bones within feature.

Figure7.2Drawing.

Fig. 7.2 Bar chart showing percentage of the bones within feature.